Cho finished the race in 35.373 seconds at Jakabaring Rowing & Canoeing Regatta Course in Palembang, the co-host city of the Asian Games with Jakarta.
Cho edged out Sergii Tokarnytskyi of Kazakhstan by 0.372 second. Yingjie Mervyn Toh of Singapore took the bronze medal at 36.314 seconds.
Cho earlier won silver in the men's K4 500m in Palembang.
Kayak races are canoeing disciplines. Cho is the first South Korean athlete to win back-to-back canoeing gold medals.
This was also South Korea's first gold medal from canoe in Palembang. The unified Korean dragon boat racing team won the women's 500m gold medal, but it was awarded to a new entity called "Korea," instead of either South Korea or North Korea. (Yonhap)